The Circus at Antioch stood on the south bank of the river,
nearly opposite the island, differing in no respect from the
plan of such buildings in general.
In the purest sense, the games were a gift to the public; consequently,
everybody was free to attend; and, vast as the holding capacity of
the structure was, so fearful were the people, on this occasion,
lest there should not be room for them, that, early the day before
the opening of the exhibition, they took up all the vacant spaces
in the vicinity, where their temporary shelter suggested an army
At midnight the entrances were thrown wide, and the rabble,
surging in, occupied the quarters assigned to them, from which
nothing less than an earthquake or an army with spears could
have dislodged them. They dozed the night away on the benches,
and breakfasted there; and there the close of the exercises found
them, patient and sight-hungry as in the beginning.
The better people, their seats secured, began moving towards the
Circus about the first hour of the morning, the noble and very
rich among them distinguished by litters and retinues of liveried
By the second hour, the efflux from the city was a stream unbroken
Exactly as the gnomon of the official dial up in the citadel pointed
the second hour half gone, the legion, in full panoply, and with all
its standards on exhibit, descended from Mount Sulpius; and when the
rear of the last cohort disappeared in the bridge, Antioch was literally
abandoned--not that the Circus could hold the multitude, but that the
multitude was gone out to it, nevertheless.
A great concourse on the river shore witnessed the consul come
over from the island in a barge of state. As the great man landed,
and was received by the legion, the martial show for one brief
moment transcended the attraction of the Circus.
At the third hour, the audience, if such it may be termed, was assembled;
at last, a flourish of trumpets called for silence, and instantly
the gaze of over a hundred thousand persons was directed towards
a pile forming the eastern section of the building.
There was a basement first, broken in the middle by a broad arched
passage, called the Porta Pompae, over which, on an elevated tribunal
magnificently decorated with insignia and legionary standards, the
consul sat in the place of honor. On both sides of the passage the
basement was divided into stalls termed carceres, each protected
in front by massive gates swung to statuesque pilasters. Over the
stalls next was a cornice crowned by a low balustrade; back of
which the seats arose in theatre arrangement, all occupied by a
throng of dignitaries superbly attired. The pile extended the
width of the Circus, and was flanked on both sides by towers
which, besides helping the architects give grace to their work,
served the velaria, or purple awnings, stretched between them so
as to throw the whole quarter in a shade that became exceedingly
grateful as the day advanced.
This structure, it is now thought, can be made useful in helping
the reader to a sufficient understanding of the arrangement of
the rest of the interior of the Circus. He has only to fancy
himself seated on the tribunal with the consul, facing to the
west, where everything is under his eye.
On the right and left, if he will look, he will see the main entrances,
very ample, and guarded by gates hinged to the towers.
Directly below him is the arena--a level plane of considerable
extent, covered with fine white sand. There all the trials will
take place except the running.
Looking across this sanded arena westwardly still, there is a
pedestal of marble supporting three low conical pillars of gray
stone, much carven. Many an eye will hunt for those pillars before
the day is done, for they are the first goal, and mark the beginning
and end of the race-course. Behind the pedestal, leaving a passage-way
and space for an altar, commences a wall ten or twelve feet in breadth
and five or six in height, extending thence exactly two hundred yards,
or one Olympic stadium. At the farther, or westward, extremity of
the wall there is another pedestal, surmounted with pillars which
mark the second goal.
The racers will enter the course on the right of the first goal,
and keep the wall all the time to their left. The beginning and
ending points of the contest lie, consequently, directly in front
of the consul across the arena; and for that reason his seat was
admittedly the most desirable in the Circus.
Now if the reader, who is still supposed to be seated on the
consular tribunal over the Porta Pompae, will look up from the
ground arrangement of the interior, the first point to attract
his notice will be the marking of the outer boundary-line of the
course--that is, a plain-faced, solid wall, fifteen or twenty
feet in height, with a balustrade on its cope, like that over
the carceres, or stalls, in the east. This balcony, if followed
round the course, will be found broken in three places to allow
passages of exit and entrance, two in the north and one in the
west; the latter very ornate, and called the Gate of Triumph,
because, when all is over, the victors will pass out that way,
crowned, and with triumphal escort and ceremonies.
At the west end the balcony encloses the course in the form
of a half circle, and is made to uphold two great galleries.
Directly behind the balustrade on the coping of the balcony is
the first seat, from which ascend the succeeding benches, each
higher than the one in front of it; giving to view a spectacle
of surpassing interest--the spectacle of a vast space ruddy and
glistening with human faces, and rich with varicolored costumes.
The commonalty occupy quarters over in the west, beginning at the
point of termination of an awning, stretched, it would seem, for the
accommodation of the better classes exclusively.
Having thus the whole interior of the Circus under view at the
moment of the sounding of the trumpets, let the reader next imagine
the multitude seated and sunk to sudden silence, and motionless in
its intensity of interest.
Out of the Porta Pompae over in the east rises a sound mixed of
voices and instruments harmonized. Presently, forth issues the
chorus of the procession with which the celebration begins;
the editor and civic authorities of the city, givers of the
games, follow in robes and garlands; then the gods, some on
platforms borne by men, others in great four-wheel carriages
gorgeously decorated; next them, again, the contestants of the
day, each in costume exactly as he will run, wrestle, leap, box,
Slowly crossing the arena, the procession proceeds to make circuit
of the course. The display is beautiful and imposing. Approval runs
before it in a shout, as the water rises and swells in front of a boat
in motion. If the dumb, figured gods make no sign of appreciation
of the welcome, the editor and his associates are not so backward.
The reception of the athletes is even more demonstrative, for there
is not a man in the assemblage who has not something in wager upon
them, though but a mite or farthing. And it is noticeable, as the
classes move by, that the favorites among them are speedily singled
out: either their names are loudest in the uproar, or they are more
profusely showered with wreaths and garlands tossed to them from
If there is a question as to the popularity with the public of
the several games, it is now put to rest. To the splendor of
the chariots and the superexcellent beauty of the horses, the
charioteers add the personality necessary to perfect the charm of
their display. Their tunics, short, sleeveless, and of the finest
woollen texture, are of the assigned colors. A horseman accompanies
each one of them except Ben-Hur, who, for some reason--possibly
distrust--has chosen to go alone; so, too, they are all helmeted
but him. As they approach, the spectators stand upon the benches,
and there is a sensible deepening of the clamor, in which a sharp
listener may detect the shrill piping of women and children; at the
same time, the things roseate flying from the balcony thicken into a
storm, and, striking the men, drop into the chariot-beds, which are
threatened with filling to the tops. Even the horses have a share
in the ovation; nor may it be said they are less conscious than
their masters of the honors they receive.
Very soon, as with the other contestants, it is made apparent
that some of the drivers are more in favor than others; and then
the discovery follows that nearly every individual on the benches,
women and children as well as men, wears a color, most frequently a
ribbon upon the breast or in the hair: now it is green, now yellow,
now blue; but, searching the great body carefully, it is manifest
that there is a preponderance of white, and scarlet and gold.
In a modern assemblage called together as this one is, particularly
where there are sums at hazard upon the race, a preference would be
decided by the qualities or performance of the horses; here, however,
nationality was the rule. If the Byzantine and Sidonian found small
support, it was because their cities were scarcely represented
on the benches. On their side, the Greeks, though very numerous,
were divided between the Corinthian and the Athenian, leaving but
a scant showing of green and yellow. Messala's scarlet and gold
would have been but little better had not the citizens of Antioch,
proverbially a race of courtiers, joined the Romans by adopting the
color of their favorite. There were left then the country people,
or Syrians, the Jews, and the Arabs; and they, from faith in the
blood of the sheik's four, blent largely with hate of the Romans,
whom they desired, above all things, to see beaten and humbled,
mounted the white, making the most noisy, and probably the most
numerous, faction of all.
As the charioteers move on in the circuit, the excitement increases;
at the second goal, where, especially in the galleries, the white is
the ruling color, the people exhaust their flowers and rive the air
Such are the cries.
Upon the passage of the procession, the factionists take their
seats and resume conversation.
"Ah, by Bacchus! was he not handsome?" exclaims a woman, whose
Romanism is betrayed by the colors flying in her hair.
"And how splendid his chariot!" replies a neighbor, of the same
proclivities. "It is all ivory and gold. Jupiter grant he wins!"
The notes on the bench behind them were entirely different.
"A hundred shekels on the Jew!"
The voice is high and shrill.
"Nay, be thou not rash," whispers a moderating friend to the speaker.
"The children of Jacob are not much given to Gentile sports, which are
too often accursed in the sight of the Lord."
"True, but saw you ever one more cool and assured? And what an
arm he has!"
"And what horses!" says a third.
"And for that," a fourth one adds, "they say he has all the tricks
of the Romans."
A woman completes the eulogium:
"Yes, and he is even handsomer than the Roman."
Thus encouraged, the enthusiast shrieks again, "A hundred shekels
on the Jew!"
"Thou fool!" answers an Antiochian, from a bench well forward on
the balcony. "Knowest thou not there are fifty talents laid against
him, six to one, on Messala? Put up thy shekels, lest Abraham rise
and smite thee."
"Ha, ha! thou ass of Antioch! Cease thy bray. Knowest thou not it
was Messala betting on himself?"
Such the reply.
And so ran the controversy, not always good-natured.
When at length the march was ended and the Porta Pompae received
back the procession, Ben-Hur knew he had his prayer.
The eyes of the East were upon his contest with Messala.