THE CONQUEST OF NANTES
The Binet Troupe opened in Nantes - as you may discover in surviving
copies of the "Courrier Nantais" - on the Feast of the Purification
with "Les Fourberies de Scaramouche." But they did not come to
Nantes as hitherto they had gone to little country villages and
townships, unheralded and depending entirely upon the parade of
their entrance to attract attention to themselves. Andre-Louis
had borrowed from the business methods of the Comedie Francaise.
Carrying matters with a high hand entirely in his own fashion, he
had ordered at Redon the printing of playbills, and four days before
the company's descent upon Nantes, these bills were pasted outside
the Theatre Feydau and elsewhere about the town, and had attracted
- being still sufficiently unusual announcements at the time -
considerable attention. He had entrusted the matter to one of the
company's latest recruits, an intelligent young man named Basque,
sending him on ahead of the company for the purpose.
You may see for yourself one of these playbills in the Carnavalet
Museum. It details the players by their stage names only, with the
exception of M. Binet and his daughter, and leaving out of account
that he who plays Trivelin in one piece appears as Tabarin in
another, it makes the company appear to be at least half as numerous
again as it really was. It announces that they will open with "Les
Fourberies de Scaramouche," to be followed by five other plays of
which it gives the titles, and by others not named, which shall also
be added should the patronage to be received in the distinguished
and enlightened city of Nantes encourage the Binet Troupe to prolong
its sojourn at the Theatre Feydau. It lays great stress upon the
fact that this is a company of improvisers in the old Italian manner,
the like of which has not been seen in France for half a century,
and it exhorts the public of Nantes not to miss this opportunity of
witnessing these distinguished mimes who are reviving for them the
glories of the Comedie de l'Art. Their visit to Nantes - the
announcement proceeds - is preliminary to their visit to Paris,
where they intend to throw down the glove to the actors of the
Comedie Francaise, and to show the world how superior is the art of
the improviser to that of the actor who depends upon an author for
what he shall say, and who consequently says always the same thing
every time that he plays in the same piece.
It is an audacious bill, and its audacity had scared M. Binet out
of the little sense left him by the Burgundy which in these days he
could afford to abuse. He had offered the most vehement opposition.
Part of this Andre-Louis had swept aside; part he had disregarded.
"I admit that it is audacious," said Scaramouche. "But at your time
of life you should have learnt that in this world nothing succeeds
"I forbid it; I absolutely forbid it," M. Binet insisted.
"I knew you would. Just as I know that you'll be very grateful to
me presently for not obeying you.
"You are inviting a catastrophe."
"I am inviting fortune. The worst catastrophe that can overtake
you is to be back in the market-halls of the country villages from
which I rescued you. I'll have you in Paris yet in spite of
yourself. Leave this to me."
And he went out to attend to the printing. Nor did his preparations
end there. He wrote a piquant article on the glories of the Comedie
de l'Art, and its resurrection by the improvising troupe of the
great mime Florimond Binet. Binet's name was not Florimond; it was
just Pierre. But Andre-Louis had a great sense of the theatre. That
article was an amplification of the stimulating matter contained in
the playbills; and he persuaded Basque, who had relations in Nantes,
to use all the influence he could command, and all the bribery they
could afford, to get that article printed in the "Courrier Nantais"
a couple of days before the arrival of the Binet Troupe.
Basque had succeeded, and, considering the undoubted literary merits
and intrinsic interest of the article, this is not at all surprising.
And so it was upon an already expectant city that Binet and his
company descended in that first week of February. M. Binet would
have made his entrance in the usual manner - a full-dress parade with
banging drums and crashing cymbals. But to this Andre-Louis offered
the most relentless opposition.
"We should but discover our poverty," said he. "Instead, we will
creep into the city unobserved, and leave ourselves to the imagination
of the public."
He had his way, of course. M. Binet, worn already with battling
against the strong waters of this young man's will, was altogether
unequal to the contest now that he found CLIMENE in alliance with
Scaramouche, adding her insistence to his, and joining with him
in reprobation of her father's sluggish and reactionary wits.
Metaphorically, M. Binet threw up his arms, and cursing the day on
which he had taken this young man into his troupe, he allowed the
current to carry him whither it would. He was persuaded that he
would be drowned in the end. Meanwhile he would drown his vexation
in Burgundy. At least there was abundance of Burgundy. Never in
his life had he found Burgundy so plentiful. Perhaps things were
not as bad as he imagined, after all. He reflected that, when all
was said, he had to thank Scaramouche for the Burgundy. Whilst
fearing the worst, he would hope for the best.
And it was very much the worst that he feared as he waited in the
wings when the curtain rose on that first performance of theirs at
the Theatre Feydau to a house that was tolerably filled by a public
whose curiosity the preliminary announcements had thoroughly
Although the scenario of "Lee Fourberies de Scaramouche" has not
apparently survived, yet we know from Andre-Louis' "Confessions"
that it is opened by Polichinelle in the character of an arrogant
and fiercely jealous lover shown in the act of beguiling the
waiting-maid, Columbine, to play the spy upon her mistress, Climene.
Beginning with cajolery, but failing in this with the saucy
Columbine, who likes cajolers to be at least attractive and to pay
a due deference to her own very piquant charms, the fierce humpbacked
scoundrel passes on to threats of the terrible vengeance he will
wreak upon her if she betrays him or neglects to obey him implicitly;
failing here, likewise, he finally has recourse to bribery, and
after he has bled himself freely to the very expectant Columbine, he
succeeds by these means in obtaining her consent to spy upon Climene,
and to report to him upon her lady's conduct.
The pair played the scene well together, stimulated, perhaps, by
their very nervousness at finding themselves before so imposing an
audience. Polichinelle was everything that is fierce, contemptuous,
and insistent. Columbine was the essence of pert indifference
under his cajolery, saucily mocking under his threats, and finely
sly in extorting the very maximum when it came to accepting a bribe.
Laughter rippled through the audience and promised well. But M.
Binet, standing trembling in the wings, missed the great guffaws of
the rustic spectators to whom they had played hitherto, and his
fears steadily mounted.
Then, scarcely has Polichinelle departed by the door than Scaramouche
bounds in through the window. It was an effective entrance, usually
performed with a broad comic effect that set the people in a roar.
Not so on this occasion. Meditating in bed that morning, Scaramouche
had decided to present himself in a totally different aspect. He
would cut out all the broad play, all the usual clowning which had
delighted their past rude audiences, and he would obtain his effects
by subtlety instead. He would present a slyly humorous rogue,
restrained, and of a certain dignity, wearing a countenance of
complete solemnity, speaking his lines drily, as if unconscious of
the humour with which he intended to invest them. Thus, though it
might take the audience longer to understand and discover him, they
would like him all the better in the end.
True to that resolve, he now played his part as the friend and hired
ally of the lovesick Leandre, on whose behalf he came for news of
Climene, seizing the opportunity to further his own amour with
Columbine and his designs upon the money-bags of Pantaloon. Also he
had taken certain liberties with the traditional costume of
Scaramouche; he had caused the black doublet and breeches to be
slashed with red, and the doublet to be cut more to a peak, a la
Henri III. The conventional black velvet cap he had replaced by a
conical hat with a turned-up brim, and a tuft of feathers on the
left, and he had discarded the guitar.
M. Binet listened desperately for the roar of laughter that usually
greeted the entrance of Scaramouche, and his dismay increased when
it did not come. And then he became conscious of something
alarmingly unusual in Scaramouche's manner. The sibilant foreign
accent was there, but none of the broad boisterousness their
audiences had loved.
He wrung his hands in despair. "It is all over!" he said. "The
fellow has ruined us! It serves me right for being a fool, and
allowing him to take control of everything!"
But he was profoundly mistaken. He began to have an inkling of this
when presently himself he took the stage, and found the public
attentive, remarked a grin of quiet appreciation on every upturned
face. It was not, however, until the thunders of applause greeted
the fall of the curtain on the first act that he felt quite sure
they would be allowed to escape with their lives.
Had the part of Pantaloon in "Les Fourberies" been other than that
of a blundering, timid old idiot, Binet would have ruined it by his
apprehensions. As it was, those very apprehensions, magnifying as
they did the hesitancy and bewilderment that were the essence of
his part, contributed to the success. And a success it proved that
more than justified all the heralding of which Scaramouche had been
For Scaramouche himself this success was not confined to the public.
At the end of the play a great reception awaited him from his
companions assembled in the green-room of the theatre. His talent,
resource, and energy had raised them in a few weeks from a pack of
vagrant mountebanks to a self-respecting company of first-rate
players. They acknowledged it generously in a speech entrusted to
Polichinelle, adding the tribute to his genius that, as they had
conquered Nantes, so would they conquer the world under his guidance.
In their enthusiasm they were a little neglectful of the feelings
of M. Binet. Irritated enough had he been already by the overriding
of his every wish, by the consciousness of his weakness when opposed
to Scaramouche. And, although he had suffered the gradual process
of usurpation of authority because its every step had been attended
by his own greater profit, deep down in him the resentment abode to
stifle every spark of that gratitude due from him to his partner.
To-night his nerves had been on the rack, and he had suffered agonies
of apprehension, for all of which he blamed Scaramouche so bitterly
that not even the ultimate success - almost miraculous when all the
elements are considered - could justify his partner in his eyes.
And now, to find himself, in addition, ignored by this company - his
own company, which he had so laboriously and slowly assembled and
selected among the men of ability whom he had found here and there
in the dregs of cities was something that stirred his bile, and
aroused the malevolence that never did more than slumber in him. But
deeply though his rage was moved, it did not blind him to the folly
of betraying it. Yet that he should assert himself in this hour was
imperative unless he were for ever to become a thing of no account
in this troupe over which he had lorded it for long months before
this interloper came amongst them to fill his purse and destroy his
So he stepped forward now when Polichinelle had done. His make-up
assisting him to mask his bitter feelings, he professed to add his
own to Polichinelle's acclamations of his dear partner. But he did
it in such a manner as to make it clear that what Scaramouche had
done, he had done by M. Binet's favour, and that in all M. Binet's
had been the guiding hand. In associating himself with Polichinelle,
he desired to thank Scaramouche, much in the manner of a lord
rendering thanks to his steward for services diligently rendered and
orders scrupulously carried out.
It neither deceived the troupe nor mollified himself. Indeed, his
consciousness of the mockery of it but increased his bitterness.
But at least it saved his face and rescued him from nullity - he who
was their chief.
To say, as I have said, that it did not deceive them, is perhaps to
say too much, for it deceived them at least on the score of his
feelings. They believed, after discounting the insinuations in
which he took all credit to himself, that at heart he was filled
with gratitude, as they were. That belief was shared by Andre-Louis
himself, who in his brief, grateful answer was very generous to M.
Binet, more than endorsing the claims that M. Binet had made.
And then followed from him the announcement that their success in
Nantes was the sweeter to him because it rendered almost immediately
attainable the dearest wish of his heart, which was to make Climene
his wife. It was a felicity of which he was the first to acknowledge
his utter unworthiness. It was to bring him into still closer
relations with his good friend M. Binet, to whom he owed all that he
had achieved for himself and for them. The announcement was joyously
received, for the world of the theatre loves a lover as dearly as
does the greater world. So they acclaimed the happy pair, with the
exception of poor Leandre, whose eyes were more melancholy than ever.
They were a happy family that night in the upstairs room of their
inn on the Quai La Fosse - the same inn from which Andre-Louis had
set out some weeks ago to play a vastly different role before an
audience of Nantes. Yet was it so different, he wondered? Had he
not then been a sort of Scaramouche - an intriguer, glib and
specious, deceiving folk, cynically misleading them with opinions
that were not really his own? Was it at all surprising that he
should have made so rapid and signal a success as a mime? Was not
this really all that he had ever been, the thing for which Nature
had designed him?
On the following night they played "The Shy Lover" to a full house,
the fame of their debut having gone abroad, and the success of
Monday was confirmed. On Wednesday they gave "Figaro-Scaramouche,"
and on Thursday morning the "Courrier Nantais" came out with an
article of more than a column of praise of these brilliant
improvisers, for whom it claimed that they utterly put to shame the
mere reciters of memorized parts.
Andre-Louis, reading the sheet at breakfast, and having no delusions
on the score of the falseness of that statement, laughed inwardly.
The novelty of the thing, and the pretentiousness in which he had
swaddled it, had deceived them finely. He turned to greet Binet and
Climene, who entered at that moment. He waved the sheet above his
"It is settled," he announced, "we stay in Nantes until Easter."
"Do we?" said Binet, sourly. "You settle everything, my friend."
"Read for yourself." And he handed him the paper.
Moodily M. Binet read. He set the sheet down in silence, and turned
his attention to his breakfast.
"Was I justified or not?" quoth Andre-Louis, who found M. Binet's
behaviour a thought intriguing.
"In coming to Nantes?"
"If I had not thought so, we should not have come," said Binet, and
he began to eat.
Andre-Louis dropped the subject, wondering.
After breakfast he and Climene sallied forth to take the air upon
the quays. It was a day of brilliant sunshine and less cold than
it had lately been. Columbine tactlessly joined them as they were
setting out, though in this respect matters were improved a little
when Harlequin came running after them, and attached himself to
Andre-Louis, stepping out ahead with Climene, spoke of the thing
that was uppermost in his mind at the moment.
"Your father is behaving very oddly towards me," said he. "It is
almost as if he had suddenly become hostile."
"You imagine it," said she. "My father is very grateful to you,
as we all are."
"He is anything but grateful. He is infuriated against me; and I
think I know the reason. Don't you? Can't you guess?"
"I can't, indeed."
"If you were my daughter, Climene, which God be thanked you are
not, I should feel aggrieved against the man who carried you away
from me. Poor old Pantaloon! He called me a corsair when I told
him that I intend to marry you."
"He was right. You are a bold robber, Scaramouche."
"It is in the character," said he. "Your father believes in having
his mimes play upon the stage the parts that suit their natural
"Yes, you take everything you want, don't you?" She looked up at
him, half adoringly, half shyly.
"If it is possible," said he. "I took his consent to our marriage
by main force from him. I never waited for him to give it. When, in
fact, he refused it, I just snatched it from him, and I'll defy him
now to win it back from me. I think that is what he most resents."
She laughed, and launched upon an animated answer. But he did not
hear a word of it. Through the bustle of traffic on the quay a
cabriolet, the upper half of which was almost entirely made of glass,
had approached them. It was drawn by two magnificent bay horses and
driven by a superbly livened coachman.
In the cabriolet alone sat a slight young girl wrapped in a lynx-fur
pelisse, her face of a delicate loveliness. She was leaning forward,
her lips parted, her eyes devouring Scaramouche until they drew his
gaze. When that happened, the shock of it brought him abruptly to a
Climene, checking in the middle of a sentence, arrested by his own
sudden stopping, plucked at his sleeve.
"What is it, Scaramouche?"
But he made no attempt to answer her, and at that moment the
coachman, to whom the little lady had already signalled, brought
the carriage to a standstill beside them. Seen in the gorgeous
setting of that coach with its escutcheoned panels, its portly
coachman and its white-stockinged footman - who swung instantly
to earth as the vehicle stopped - its dainty occupant seemed to
Climene a princess out of a fairy-tale. And this princess leaned
forward, with eyes aglow and cheeks aflush, stretching out a
choicely gloved hand to Scaramouche.
"Andre-Louis!" she called him.
And Scaramouche took the hand of that exalted being, just as he
might have taken the hand of Climene herself, and with eyes that
reflected the gladness of her own, in a voice that echoed the joyous
surprise of hers, he addressed her familiarly by name, just as she
had addressed him.